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Monday, 15 December 2014

Dr Atta-ur-Rehman.....Profile

Dr Atta-ur-Rehman

Pakistan's Leading Scientist in the Field of Organic Chemistry

Dr Atta-ur-Rehman is one of the country’s leading scientists in the field of organic chemistry. He has submitted over 900 publications in the field including 135 books that have received widespread acclaim from the international community. He has also earned numerous awards including the Nishan-e-Imtiaz (2002) and the UNESCO Science Prize (1999). He was recently conferred with the Friendship Award of China, the highest national award of China. Essentially, Dr Atta ur Rehman has been credited for reviving the higher education and research practices in Pakistan.


Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS, D.Phil., TI, SI HI, NI, is a leading scientist and scholar in the field of organic chemistry from Pakistan, especially renowned for his research in the various areas relating to natural product chemistry. With over 947 publications in the field of his expertise including 135 books largely published by leading publishers in Europe and USA and 35 patents, he is also credited for reviving the higher education and research practices in Pakistan[1]


  President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences, Dr Attaur Rahman, has unfolded that Pakistani scientists are involved in the field of ‘biosaline agriculture’ in order to grow maize, wheat, rice and other crops using seawater.
“Pakistanis is already confronting with water shortage while the global warming will cause a massive drought across the world over the next 20 years. Socio-economic development is no longer dependent on natural resources. Knowledge has become the main driving force for world economies,” Dr. Atta said while delivering an online lecture ‘The Thrilling World of Discovery’ at ICCBS, University of Karachi.
The lecture was organised by the National Academy of Young Scientists, Pakistan in connection with the World Science Day for Peace and Development.
Dr Atta, who is also a former HEC chairperson, said that scientists at the ICCBS are working vigorously on various topics, while research on Biosaline Agriculture is a part of these efforts. He said the establishment of the Jamilur Rahman Centre for Genomic Research at ICCBS will help scientists engage in research work in this specific area.
Countries such as China, Singapore, Korea and Taiwan had realized the relevance of knowledge and made great progress.


He said that Pakistan needs to follow the footprints of these countries to achieve advancement on the economic front.
“The world has made wonderful progress in the field of science and technology,” he said. “By using nanotechnology, bulletproof papers are being made which are stronger than steel. These papers are being used to make bulletproof jackets.”

Born September 1942
Delhi, British India
Nationality Pakistani
Fields Organic chemistry
Institutions H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
Ministry of Science and Technology
Ministry of Education
Alma mater University of Karachi, Pakistan
University of Cambridge, UK
Doctoral advisor Dr. J. Harley Mason
Known for Natural Product Chemistry
Influenced Salimuzzaman Siddiqui
Notable awards Tamgha-e-Imtiaz(1983)
UNESCO Science Prize in Chemistry(1999)
Decoration of Honour in Gold with Sash for Services to the Republic of Austria
Fellow of the Royal Society London (2006)


Atta ur Rahman was born in Sept 1942 in Delhi. His grandfather was Sir Abdur Rahman who had been Vice Chancellor of the University of Delhi (from 1934–38) and later a judge at the Madras High Court. He also represented India in the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, before moving to Pakistan in 1947 and becoming a Judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan.[2]
Atta-ur-Rahman has had a prominent record in Cambridge Overseas School Certificate in 1958, and 'A' Levels in 1960 from the Karachi Grammar School. In 1963, he received B.Sc (Hons.) in Chemistry, followed by M.Sc in Organic Chemistry from Karachi University. He received Commonwealth Scholarship in 1965 to study for Ph.D in Organic Chemistry under supervision of Dr. J. Harley Mason and received Ph.D at King's College, Cambridge in 1968.
With more than 970 international publications, including 151 books and 37 international patents, he has the distinction of being the only scientist to be elected Fellow of Royal Society (London) in 2006 in recognition of research contributions carried out within a country in the Islamic world. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been awarded the UNESCO Science Prize (1999). He was awarded an Honorary Life Fellowship by King's College, University of Cambridge in 2007, an honorary Doctorate of Science by University of Cambridge in 1987, a Doctorate of Education by Coventry University in 2007,[3] a Doctorate of Science by Bradford University in 2010, a Doctor of Philosophy by Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand in 2010 and honorary Doctor of Scıence by University of Technology MARA. Malaysıa.[4] A number of other universities have also granted honorary doctorate degrees to Atta-ur-Rahman including University of Karachi, Sir Syed University and Gomal University. He was given the International Cooperation Award, the highest award of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for Institution Building, on January 10, 2014.[5] Prof. Rahman was also conferred the highest national award of china, the "Friendship Award, at a special ceremony held on 29 September 2014 in Beijing, in recognition for his developing a large number of collaborative programs with China.[6]

Academic career

Atta ur Rahman started his career in 1964 as a Lecturer at University of Karachi. He remained Fellow at King's College, Cambridge between 1969 to 1973, and is presently Honorary Life Fellow at King's College, University of Cambridge, UK. In 1977, he became Co-Director of Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry at University of Karachi to become Director in 1990. He has over 935 international publications in several fields of organic chemistry including 730 research publications, 35 patents, 125 books and 65 chapters in books published by major U.S. and European presses. Eighty students have completed their Ph.D. degrees under his supervision.

HAARP Research

In 2010 Atta ur-Rahman, published his views that the United States government had financed a science research project in Alaska which could affect weather.[7][8] This sparked off a debate when Pervez Hoodbhoy lamented the decline of academic standards in Pakistan.[8][9] The views of Pervez Hoodbhoy have been strongly refuted by neutral international authorities, Fred Hayward (US consultant to USAID),[10] Wolfgang Voelter (Tübingen University)[11] and Michael Rode (Innsbruck University, Chairman of UN Commission on Science, Technology & Development)[12] who have praised the remarkable transformation of the higher education sector in Pakistan under the leadership of Atta-ur-Rahman.[13] A number of major international prizes and awards have also been won by Atta-ur-Rahman in recognition of these contributions[13] Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has subsequently clarified that he did not state that HAARP could cause earthquakes but he did refer to the European Union resolution that condemned the US funded research on HAARP which could potentially alter weather patterns and on which 12 US patents had been obtained[7]

Positions held

Prizes, honours and awards

Prof Rahman is the most decorated scientist of Pakistan having won four civil awards by successive governments including the highest national Civil Award of Nishan-i-Imtiaz.Prof. Rahman was elected as Fellow of Royal Society (London) in July 2006 thereby becoming one of the 4 scientists from the Muslim world to have ever won this honor in the last 350 years when the Royal Society was established, and the only scıentıst to be so recognısed for researches carrıed out wıthın a Islamıc country. He is also the only scientist from the Muslim world to have been conferred the UNESCO Science Prize in 1999.[14] He has been conferred honorary doctorate degrees by many universities including the degree of Doctor of Science (Sc.D.) by the Cambridge University (UK) (1987) and an Honorary degree of Doctor of Education by Coventry University UK in November 2007. He was elected Honorary Life Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, UK in 2007. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was conferred the TWAS Prize for Institution Building in Durban, South Africa in October 2009 in recognition of his contributions for bringing about revolutionary changes in the higher education sector in Pakistan.He was awarded the Engro Excellence Award in Science & Technology 2011 with a prize of Rs. 5 million (US $59,000) for meritorious contributions. He then proceeded to use the money in addition to funds from his private finances to establish a research center on Genomics in Karachi University named after his father Jamil-ur-Rahman, and to start a TWAS Prize in Chemistry for deserving young researchers from developing countries that has been instituted by TWAS, The World Academy of Sciences, Trieste, Italy.[15]
He is President of Network of Academies of Sciences of Islamic Countries (NASIC) and the Vice-President (Central & South Asia) of the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) Council, and Foreign Fellow of Korean Academy of Sciences. Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the President of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (2003–06), and was again elected President of Pakistan Academy of Sciences in January 2011.
He was the Federal Minister for Science and Technology (14 March 2000 – 20 November 2002), Federal Minister of Education (2002) and Chairman of the Higher Education Commission with the status of a Federal Minister from 2002-2008. The Austrian government also honoured him with its highest civil award ("Das Große Goldene Ehrenzeichen am Bande", 2007) in recognition of his eminent contributions.
Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman was the Coordinator General of COMSTECH, an OIC Ministerial Committee comprising the 57 Ministers of Science & Technology from 57 OIC member countries during 1996-2012. He is also the Patron of International Centre of Chemical and Biological Sciences (which comprises a number of institutes, including the Hussain Ebrahim Jamal Research Institute of Chemistry and the Dr. Panjwani Center of Molecular Medicine and Drug Development) at Karachi University.[16]
In recognition of the eminent contributions of Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, a number of institutions have been named after him within and outside Pakistan. These include a natural product chemistry institute (Atta-ur-Rahman Research Institute of Natural Product Discovery, RiND) at the University of Technology Mara in Malaysia,[17] Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences at National University of Science & Technology in Islamabad,[18] and Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Building at the International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi[19] The Academy of Sciences in the Developing World (TWAS) based in Trieste, Italy has introduced a Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman Prize in Chemistry to a scientist from the developing world each year. The Prize carries a cash award of $5,000 and a Certificate.[15]

National awards

In recognition of his eminent contributions in the field of Organic Chemistry, he has been conferred with four civil awards, including:

International awards


Research activities

  • Editor-in-Chief/Executive Editor of following international journals:
    • Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Current Medicinal Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Current Pharmaceutical Design (Netherlands)(Founding Editor)
    • Current Organic Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • Combinatorial Chemistry and High Throughput Screening (Netherlands)
    • Current Organic Synthesis (Netherlands)
    • Current Nanoscience
    • Letters in Organic Chemistry (Netherlands)
    • The Natural Products Journal
    • Medicinal Chemistry
    • Nanoscience and Nanotechnology-Asia
    • Current Organic Chemistry
    • Natural Product Research (Founding Editor, UK)
    • Current Pharmaceutical Analysis
    • Current Analytical Chemistry


  1. Editorial in Nature, 427, 379 (29 January 2004)
  2. Atta ur Rahman at muslim-science.com
  3. Biography at the British Council website. Retrieved on 26 May 2008
  4. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-4-73967-Malaysian-King-confers-degree-on-Atta-ur-Rahman
  5. Jabri, Parvez (2013-12-23). "CAS to confer International Cooperation Award on Professor Atta-ur-Rehman". Business Recorder. Retrieved 2014-06-12. The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) conferred its most prestigious award for International Cooperation upon Professor Dr. Atta ur Rehman in a ceremony held in Beijing on January 10, 2014.
  6. wagdy.sawahel@sciencedev.net
  7. http://dawn.com/2010/11/20/haarp-a-us-weapon-of-mass-destruction/
  8. "Craving Energy and Glory, Pakistan Revels in Boast of Water-Run Car". The New York Times. 4 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  9. Hoodbhoy, Pervez (16 November 2010). "Case of bogus science". Dawn. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  10. Hayward, Fred M. (Winter 2009). Higher Education Transformation in Pakistan: Political & Economic Instability, International Higher Education Quarterly (54)
  11. http://archives.dawn.com/weekly/education/archive/081123/education1.htm
  12. http://archives.dawn.com/archives/http/dildilpakistan.wordpress.com/tag/dr-atta-ur-rehman/
  13. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan
  14. UNESCO Science Prize
  15. http://twas.ictp.it/news-in-home-page/programmatical/announcing-the-atta-ur-rahman-prize-in-chemistry
  16. http://www.iccs.edu/pcmd/executive_board.php
  17. http://dawn.com/2011/03/06/malaysia-to-establish-a-science-center-on-the-name-of-dr-atta-ur-rehman/
  18. http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/02/07/city/islamabad/nust-honours-prof-atta-ur-rahman/
  19. http://www.comsats.org/Latest/15thCC_Turkey_Presentations/15thCC_ICCBS-Pakistan.pdf
  20. "Reply to a parliamentary question about the Decoration of Honour" (pdf) (in German). p. 1879. Retrieved November 2012.

See also

External links

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Koichi Tanaka...... Profile

Koichi Tanaka

Koichi Tanaka

Tayoma, japan

Koichi Tanaka (born 1959, Toyama, Japan) is a Japanese analytical chemist and engineer, who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules with John Bennett Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich (the latter for work in NMR spectroscopy).
He is the twelfth Japanese individual to receive the Nobel Prize and the first post-war- born Laureate. He was 43 years old when the award was announced, which makes him the second youngest after Prof. Hideki Yukawa, who was 42 when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1949. Moreover, Tanaka is the first ever person to win the Nobel Prize without a master’s or doctor’s degree, having become a researcher after graduating from university without entering a graduate school.

Currently, he is a core Researcher and general manager, Koichi Tanaka Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology,Shimadzu Corporation.
Koichi Tanaka (田中 耕一 Tanaka Kōichi?, born August 3, 1959) is a Japanese engineer who shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2002 for developing a novel method for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules with John Bennett Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich (the latter for work in NMR spectroscopy)
Tanaka was born and raised in Toyama, Japan. He attended Toyama Chubu High School in Toyama City. In 1983, he graduated from Tohoku University with a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering. After graduation, he joined Shimadzu Corporation, where he engaged in the development of mass spectrometers.
  • Education and Experiences

1983 B. S. Tohoku University
1983 Central Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corporation
2002 Fellow, Shimadzu Corporation
2003 General Manager of Mass Spectrometry Research Laboratory in Shimadzu Corporation
2010 General Manager, Koichi Tanaka Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology, Shimadzu Corporation
  •  Awards and Honors 

1989 Encouragement Award from the Mass Spectrometry Society of Japan
2002 Nobel Prize for Chemistry
2002 Person of Cultural Merit, Japan
2003 Order of Culture, Japan

  • Research

Currently, two of the most popular life-science ionization techniques,  MALDI (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization)and ESI (electrospray ionization). Tanaka developed the principal MALDI and Bennett Fenn who shared Nobel Prize Chemistry in 2002 with Tananaka invented the method of ESI.
 Development Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry:MALDI-MS
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a method for measuring the weight of molecules and analyzing their contents. The ability to separate molecules based on different size and charge was first described in 1912 by J.J. Thompson (Nobel Prize laureate in 1906 for investigations of the conduction of electricity by gases).  In mass spectrometry, it is necessary to use some method to separate the generated ions according to mass, and then perform detection of the ions.
“If you don’t ionize or you can’t ionize, then you can’t do mass spectrometry,”
Therefore, various ionization methods have been developed such as chemical ionization (CI), fast atom bombardment (FAB), and liquid matrix secondary ion mass spectrometry (LSIMS). Despite years of intense MS development, the goal of analysing large macromolecules remained elusive for over 70 years.
During the 1980s several groups tried to solve the volatilisation/ionisation problem of mass spectrometry using laser light as an energy source.
A breakthrough for the laser desorption method in its application to large biomolecules was reported at a symposium in Osaka in 1987, when Koichi Tanaka at the Shimadzu Corp. in Kyoto presented results of a mass spectrometric analysis of an intact protein.[1]  The principle of soft laser desorption (SLD) is illustrated in Figure 2, showing the signals from singly and doubly charged molecular ions and a protein cluster-ion with a single charge.

The soft laser desorption process
The soft laser desorption process (adapted from NobelPrize.org)
A fast-growing version of the SLD technique, currently predominant, incorporates the macromolecules of interest in a low-molecular-weight crystalline matrix with absorption maximum matched to the wavelength of the laser pulse. This matrix-assisted, laser-desorption ionisation (MALDI) technique applied to proteins by  Karas and Hillenkamp [16] that appeared shortly after Tanaka’s initial breakthrough.

In MALDI, there is a mixture of two different substances: the matrix and the analyte. The analyte is the substance of interest that needs to be ionized. The matrix is a substance that surrounds the analyte and assists in the ionization process. The matrix and the analyte are mixed together, usually in the liquid phase. The mixture is added, drop wise, to a metal plate. The solvent is allowed to evaporate, and the matrix crystallizes (forms a solid) around the analyte. The metal plate (which is usually stainless steel) is inserted in the instrument. A laser is shot at the sample, and ionization of the analyte is promoted. The ions travel through the instrument, and a mass spectrum is recorded. There are a variety of different types of matrix molecules; usually it is a small, organic acid. One of the most common matrices is called α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid.
The type of a mass spectrometer most widely used with MALDI is theTime-of-Flight  Mass Spectrometry(TOF), which involves separating ions according to mass by measuring their respective flight times., mainly due to its large mass range.

LAMS-50K, the world’s first MALDI-TOF MS instrument (1988) form Shimazu Corp.

AXIMA:  MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from Shimazu Corp.
Currently, MS is widely used in various fields of science and technology, as it is an extremely effective method to measure the base quantity of compounds, both natural and artificial, and to identify them.
  • References

[1] Tanaka, K.; Waki, H.; Ido, Y.; Akita, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Yoshida, T. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 19882, 151. DOI:10.1002/rcm.1290020802 [2] Karas, M. and Hillenkamp, F.  Anal. Chem. 199860, 2299. DOI: 10.1021/ac00171a028


  1. Tanaka, K.; Waki, H.; Ido, Y.; Akita, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Yoshida, T. (1988). "Protein and Polymer Analyses up to m/z 100 000 by Laser Ionization Time-of flight Mass Spectrometry". Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2 (20): 151–3. doi:10.1002/rcm.1290020802.
  2.  "Biographical Snapshots of Famous Women and Minority Chemists: Snapshot". Retrieved 2008-08-18.
  3.  Markides, K; Gräslund, A. "Advanced information on the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002" (PDF).
  4. Spinney, Laura (2002-12-11). "Nobel Prize controversy"The Scientist. Retrieved 2014-06-04Nobel Prize for Chemistry awarded amid protests that two of mass spectrometry's inventors overlooked
  5. Victor A. Gault; Neville H. McClenaghan (8 December 2008). Understanding Bioanalytical Chemistry: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 184–185. ISBN 978-0-470-71210-8.
  6. Jump up^ Karas, M.; Bachmann, D.; Hillenkamp, F. (1985). "Influence of the Wavelength in High-Irradiance Ultraviolet Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry of Organic Molecules". Anal. Chem. 57(14): 2935–9. doi:10.1021/ac00291a042.
  7.  Karas M, Hillenkamp F (1988). "Laser desorption ionization of proteins with molecular masses exceeding 10,000 daltons"Anal. Chem. 60 (20): 2299–301. doi:10.1021/ac00171a028.PMID 3239801.

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