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Tuesday, 30 December 2014

Professor Ian R. Baxendale

IRB picture

Professor Ian R. Baxendale

Durham University

Ian Baxendale obtained his first degree from the University of Leicester graduating with a BSc 1st class honours in Chemistry. He remained at Leicester to continue his studies pursuing a PhD under the supervision of Prof. Pavel Kocovsky investigating new Organometallic catalysts based on group 6 transition metals for stereoselective allylic substitution reactions.
Pavel Kocovskypavel kosovsky
In 1999 he moved to a postdoctoral position with Prof. Steven V. Ley at the University of Cambridge initially conducting research into Natural Product synthesis prior to entering the field of Solid Supported Reagents and Scavengers. In 2003 he was awarded a Wolfson Royal Society Fellowship. Then in 2005 he co-founded the Innovative Technology Centre (ITC) with Prof. Ley as a centre of excellence for the study and development of advanced chemical synthesis tools and methodologies where he was the centre's Director. In 2008 he was promoted to a Senior Research Associate within the Department of Chemistry at Cambridge and then in 2009 was awarded a prestigious Royal Society University Research Fellowship and become a member of the Chemistry Departments teaching faculty.
Whilst at Cambridge he was also elected a Fellow at Sidney Sussex College (2000) and soon after took over as the Head of Natural Sciences teaching and for 5 years acted as the Dean of the College.
In 2005 Prof.'s Baxendale and Ley established a spin-out company; Reaxa Ltd, as a joint venture between the University of Cambridge and Avecia plc. The company was focused upon the developed of enabling tools such as immobilised catalysts and metal scavengers for bulk scale production of high volume intermediates and APIs. In 2010 the company sold its scavenger range (QuadraPure™ and QuadraSil™ scavengers - leading technology in metal extraction and purification for pharma manufacturing) to Johnson Matthey. Then divested its EnCat™ encapsulated catalyst technology to S. Amit & Co., a Mumbai-based chemistry services provider. The remaining company assets were integrated into a new venture Yorkshire Process Technology Ltd.
In 2012 Ian moved to Durham to take up the Chair of Synthetic Chemistry as a fully tenured Professor.
His current research interests are the design and implementation of new enabling technologies such as Flow Chemical Synthesis (FCS), Synthesis Automation Methodologies (SAM), microwave reactors and immobilised reagents and scavengers to expedite complex chemical syntheses. The success of his academic career is reflected by >125 publications (H-index=36), including several reviews and book chapters, with a total of >3900 citations.
Ian's research has received considerable interest especially from within the Pharmaceutical and Agrochemical industries consequently he gives on average 20-25 teaching lectures per annum. In addition his laboratory have established a successful training scheme allowing people to visit from companies and other research organisations to perform a period of learning and development within the confines of his laboratories. This has created a network of skilled technical experts who are spreading the story and supporting the British and European chemical industry.
Furthermore, Ian acts as a scientific consultant for a number of major pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemicals companies with regard to advising them upon the latest manufacturing techniques and technologies as well as effective exploitation of modern synthesis techniques for improved chemical synthesis.

Contact details:

Department of Chemistry

University of Durham

South Road

Durham, DH1 3LE.

United Kingdom.


Tel Office: +44 191 3342185

Tel Lab: +44 191 3342434

Department of Chemistry, University of Durham

Durham University, Chemistry Lab


Research Interests

His general areas of interest are: Organic synthesis (natural products, heterocyclic and medicinal chemistry), Organometallic chemistry, Catalyst design and application, Meso flow chemistry, Microfluidics, Microwave assisted synthesis, Solid supported reagents and scavengers, and facilitated reaction optimisation using Robotics and Automation.
My primary research direction is the synthesis of biologically potent molecules which encompasses the design, development and integration of new processing techniques for their preparation and solving challenges associated with the syntheses of new pharmaceutical and agrochemical compounds. In our work we utilise the latest synthesis tools and enabling technologies such as microwave reactors, solid supported reagents and scavengers, enzymes, membrane reactors and flow chemistry platforms to facilitate the bond making sequence and expedite the purification procedure. A central aspect of our investigations is our pioneering work on flow chemical synthesis and microreactor technology as a means of improving the speed, efficiency, and safety of various chemical transformations. As a part of these studies we are attempting to devise new chemical reactions that are not inherently feasible or would be problematic under standard laboratory conditions. It is our further challenge to enhance the automation associated with these reactor devices to impart a certain level of intelligence to their function so that repetitive wasteful actions currently performed by chemists can be delegated to a machine; for example, reagent screening or reaction optimisation. We use these technologies as tools to enhance our synthetic capabilities but strongly believe in not becoming slaves to any methodology or equipment.
For those interested in our research and wishing to find out more we invite you to visit our website at:http://www.dur.ac.uk/i.r.baxendale/

Durham Castle houses University College, making it the oldest inhabited university building in the world

Durham cathedral

Recent Selected Publications

  1. Baumann, M.; Baxendale, I. R. (The rapid generation of isothiocyanates in flow) Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2013, 9,1613–1619.
  2. Nakayama, K.; Browne, D. L.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V. (Studies of a Diastereoselective Electrophilic Fluorination Reaction Employing a Cryo-Flow Reactor) Synlett 201324, 1298–1302.
  3. Baxendale, I. R.; Millia, C. J.; Brocken, L.; (Flow chemistry approaches directed at improving chemical synthesis)Green Process Synth20132, 211–230.
  4. Battilocchio, C.; Guetzoyan, L.; Cervetto, C.; Mannelli, L. D. C.; Daniela Frattaroli, D.; Baxendale, I. R.; Maura, G.; Sautebin, L.; Biava, M.; Ghelardini, C.; Marcoli, M.; Ley, S. V. (Flow Synthesis and Bio-Pharmacological Studies of a P2X7 Antagonist that Shows Analgesic Activity) A.C.S. Med. Chem. Lett20134 (8), 704–709.
  5.  Baxendale, I. R.; Cheung, S.; Kitching, M. O.; Ley, S. V. Shearman, J. W. (The Synthesis of Neurotensin Antagonist SR 48692 for Prostate Cancer Research) Bioorg. Med. Chem. 201321, 4378–4387.
  6. Battilocchio, C.; Deadman, B. J.; Nikbin N.; Kitching, M. O.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V. (A Machine-Assisted Flow Synthesis of SR48692: a Probe for the Investigation of Neurotensin Receptor-1) Chem. Eur. J. 201319, 7917–7930.
  7. Fernández, A.; Levine, Z. G.; Baumann, M.; Sulzer-Mossé, S.; Sparr, C.; Schläger, S.; Metzger, A.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V. (Synthesis of (–)-Hennoxazole A: Integrating Batch and Flow Chemistry Methods) Synlett 2013, 514–518.
  8. Baxendale, I. R. (The integration of flow reactors into synthetic organic chemistry) J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.2013, 88, 519–552.
  9. Deadman, B. J. Hopkin, M. D.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V. (The Synthesis of Bcr-Abl Inhibiting Anticancer Pharmaceutical Agents Imatinib, Nilotinib and Dasatinib) Org. Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 1766–1800.
  10. Hopkin, M. D.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V. (An Expeditious Synthesis of Imatinib and Analogues Utilising Flow Chemistry Methods) Org. Biomol. Chem. 201311, 1822–1839.
  11. Guetzoyan,L.; Nikbin,N.; Baxendale,I. R.; Ley S. V. (Flow Chemistry Synthesis of Zolpidem, Alpidem and other GABAA Agonists and their Biological Evaluation through the use of In-line Frontal Affinity Chromatography)Chem. Sci20134, 764–769.

The rapid generation of isothiocyanates in flow.
pdf icon
Baumann, M.; Baxendale, I. R.
Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 20139, 1613-1619.
Graphical Abstract
Isothiocyanates are versatile starting materials for a wide range of chemical reactions. However, their high nucleophilic susceptibility means they are best prepared and used immediately. We report here on a flow platform for the fast and efficient formation of isothiocyanates by the direct conversion of easily prepared chloroximes. To expedite this chemistry a flow insert cartridge containing two immobilised reagents is used to affect the chemical transformation which typically eliminates the requirements for any conventional work-up or purification of the reaction stream.
Studies of a Diastereoselective Electrophilic Fluorination Reaction Employing a Cryo-Flow Reactor.
pdf icon
Nakayama, K.; Browne, D. L.; Baxendale, I. R.; Ley, S. V.
Synlett 201324(10), 1298-1302.
Graphical Abstract
The application of meso-scale flow chemistry in research laboratories continues to increase. Here, we report on the use of a modular cryo-flow device as applied to a diastereoselective fluorination process. The reactor can be incorporated into existing flow chemistry setups to permit continuous processing at low temperatures without recourse to cryogenic consumables.
Flow chemistry approaches directed at improving chemical synthesis.
pdf icon
Baxendale, I. R.; Millia, C. J.; Brocken, L.
Green Process Synth. 20132, 211-230.
Graphical Abstract
Flow synthesis offers many advantages when applied to the processing of difficult or dangerous chemical transformations. Furthermore, continuous production allows for rapid scale up of reactions without significant redevelopment of the routes. Importantly, it can also provide a versatile platform from which to build integrated multi-step transformations, delivering more advanced chemical architectures. The construction of multi-purpose micro and meso flow systems, that utilize in-line purification and diagnostic capabilities, creates a scenario of seamless connectivity between sequential steps of a longer chemical sequence. In this mini perspective, we will discuss our experience of target orientated multi-step synthesis as presented at the recent inaugural meeting of LEGOMEDIC at Namar University, Belgium.
Flow Synthesis and Bio-Pharmacological Studies of a P2X7 Antagonist that Shows Analgesic Activity.
pdf icon
Battilocchio, C.; Guetzoyan, L.; Cervetto, C.; Mannelli, L. D. C.; Daniela Frattaroli, D.; Baxendale, I. R.; Maura, G.; Sautebin, L.; Biava, M.; Ghelardini, C.; Marcoli, M.; Ley, S. V.
A.C.S. Med. Chem. Lett. 20134(8), 704-709.
Graphical Abstract
We report the biological evaluation of a class of adamantane derivatives, which were achieved via modified telescoped machine-assisted flow procedure. Among the series of compounds tested in this work, 5 demonstrated outstanding analgesic properties. This compound showed that its action was not mediated through direct interaction with opioid and/ or cannabinoid receptors. Moreover, it did not display any significant anti-inflammatory properties. Experiments carried out on rat cerebrocortical purified synaptosomes indicated that 5 inhibits the P2X7-evoked glutamate release, which may contribute to its antinociceptive properties. Nevertheless, further experiments are ongoing to characterize the pharmacological properties and mechanism of action of this molecule.
The Synthesis of Neurotensin Antagonist SR 48692 for Prostate Cancer Research.
pdf icon
Baxendale, I. R.; Cheung, S.; Kitching, M. O.; Ley, S. V. Shearman, J. W.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. 201321, 4378-4387.
Graphical Abstract
An improved synthesis of the molecule SR 48692 is presented and its use as a neurotensin antagonist biological probe for use in cancer research is described. The preparation includes an number of enhanced chemical conversions and strategies to overcome some of the limiting synthetic transformations in the original chemical route.

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Dr. Farzad Kobarfard

Dr. Farzad Kobarfard
Prof. of Medicinal Chemistry
Shahid Beheshti Univ. Med. Sci.
Farzad Kobarfard
Shams Alley, Vali-e-Asr Ave.
Tehran, Iran
+9821-8820-0092 (w)
+9821-8805-7163 (h)
+912-343-4595 (mobile)
IRAN Tehran to  Valie Asr Ave, Alley Takhti خيابان وليعصر  خيابان تختي پله ششم

Valie Asr Ave, Alley Takhti خيابان وليعصر خيابان تختي پله ششم


1995-2000 University of The Sciences in Philadelphia (USP), PA, USA
● Ph.D. degree in Medicinal Chemistry
● GPA: 4.00
● Research Advisor: Professor Joel M. Kauffman
● Dissertation: Synthesis and Evaluation of new fluorinated potentialAntimicrobial drugs

1982-1988 Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
● Pharmacy Doctorate
● GPA: 3.85

Associate professor, Department of Medicinal Chemistry,Shaheed Beheshti School of Pharmacy, Tehran, Iran
Map of School of Pharmacy Shahid Beheshti University
2001-2007Assistant professor, Department of Medicinal Chemistry,
Shaheed Beheshti School of Pharmacy, Tehran, Iran
2004-presentTechnical Director of Iran Doping Control Laboratory, Tehran,Iran
2001-present Member of editorial board of Iran Pharmacopoeia
2002-present Member of editorial board of Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical
Research (IJPR)
2000-2001 Assistant professor, University of The Sciences in Philadelphia (USP),
Philadelphia, PA, USA
2000-2001 Adjunct Faculty member in Philadelphia Community College
(PCC) Philadelphia, PA, USA
1995-2000 Teaching assistant, University of The Sciences in Philadelphia (USP),
Philadelphia, PA, USA
1991-1995 Instructor, Shaheed Beheshti School of Pharmacy, Tehran, Iran
1989-1991 Member of Editorial Board for the book "Generic Drugs of Iran"Darou-Pakhsh Pharmaceutical Co., Tehran, Iran

Current Screening Methods in Doping Analysis
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Solid Phase Extraction Methods
Computational Chemistry
Combinatorial Chemistry
Modern NMR Specroscopy
Abraham Glasser predoctoral research fellowship, University of The
Sciences in Philadelphia (USP), Philadelphia, PA, 1999
Student Recognition Award, American Association of Iranian
Pharmaceutical Scientists (ASIPS), San Francisco, CA, 1998
Graduate Studies Scholarship, Shaheed Beheshti University of
Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 1995

Ruins of the Achaemenid palace ofPersepolis, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site

1. Principles and Applications of LC-Mass (Farsi)
2. Psychotropic Compounds (Farsi)
3. Prohibited Substances in Sport (Farsi) 4. Iran National Formulary (member of Editorial board)
5. Iranian Pharmacopoeia (Member of Editorial Board)

Modern impression of Achaemenidcylinder seal, 5th century BCE. A winged solar disc legitimises the Persian king who subdues two rampant Mesopotamian lamassu figures.
English Language, writing properly and speaking fluently
Farsi, native language

Persian miniature depicting Timur's campaign in India
American Chemical Society (ACS)
American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS)
Iranian Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (IAPS)

Nadir Shah was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty.
Halogenated Antituberculosis Agents, Farzad Kobarfard, Joel M.Kauffman, United State Patent 6,482,982, Nov. 19, 2002
Halogenated Antituberculosis Agents, Farzad Kobarfard,
Two new lathyrane type diterpenoids fromEuphorbia aelleniiA. M. Ayatollahi, M. Ghanadian, S. Afshrypour, M. I. Choudhari, F.Kobarfard, M. Rahmati Fitoterapia, 2010, X, XXX

Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile on 1 February 1979.
● Antiglycation activity of Otostegia persica (Burm.) Boiss S. A. Ayatollahi, F. Kobarfard, J. Asgarpanah, M. I. Choudhari
African Journal of Biotechnology, 2010, 9 (24), 3645
● Heavy metal contamination of table sult consumed in Iran A. M. Cheraghali, F. Kobarfard, N. Faeizy, Iranian Journal of
Pharmaceutical research, 2010, 9 (2), 129
● Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticles of amikacin by central composite designJ. Arshosaz, S. Ghafari, M. R. Khoshayand, F. Atyabi, S. Azarmi, F. Kobarfard, Journal of Liposome Research, 2010, 20 (2), 97.
● Preclinical pharmacokinetics of KBF611, a new antituberculosis agent in mice and rabbits and comparison with
thiacetazone F. M. Shahab, F. Kobarfard, S. Dadashzadeh Xenobiotica, 2009, 1, 10
● Terpenes from aerial parts of Euphorbia splendida S. A. Ayatollahi, A. Shojai, F. Kobarfard, M. Nori, M. Fathi, M. I.
Choudhari, Jornla of Medicinal Plants Research, 2008, 3 (9), 660
● Assessment of endogenous androgen levels in meat, liver,and testis of Iranian native cross-bread male sheep and bull by GCmass
spectrometry R. Ahmadkhani, F. Kobarfard, N. Rastkari, M. Khoshayand, M.Amini, A. Shafiee, Food Additive and Contaminants, 2009, 26 (4),453.
● Quantification of endogenous steroids in human urine by gcmass spectrometry using a surrogate analyte approach.
R. Ahmadkhani, A. Shafiee, N. Rastkari, M. Khoshayand, F.Kobarfard, Journal of Chromatography B, 2010, 878, 845.
● Serum copper alterations in pulmonary tuberculosis patients under treatment with ethambutol.
M. A. Nazari, F. Kobarfard, P. Tabarsi, J. Salamzadeh, Biological Trace Element Research, 2009, 128, 161
● Two Fravones from Salvia lerifolia S. A. Ayatollahi, A. Shojai, F. Kobarfard, M. Mohammadzadeh, M.
I. Choudhari, Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009, 8 (3), 179.
● Simultaneous determination of a new antituberculosis agent KBF-611 and its deacetylated metabolite in mouse and rabbit
plasma by HPLC: Application to preclinical pharmacokinetics F. Mostafavi Shahab, F. Kobarfard, S. Dadashzadeh, Archives of
Pharmaceutical Research, 2009, 1
● Ion release and pH of a new endodontic cement, MTA and Portland cement
S. A. Gazvini, M. A. Tabrizi, F. Kobarfard, A. Akbarzadeh, S. Asgarim, Iranian Journal of Endodontics, 2009, 4 (2), 74
● Accurate quantification of endogenous androgenic steroids in cattle’s meat by gas chromatography mass spectrometry using a
surrogate analyte approach R. Ahmadkhaniha, a. Shafiee, N. Rastkari, F. Kobarfard
Analytica Chimica Acta ,xx, 2008
● Flavonoids from Iris songarica and their antioxidant and esterogenic activity
M. R. Moein, S. I. Khan, Z. Ali, S. A. M. Ayatollahi, F. Kobarfard, S. Nasim. M. I. Choudhary, I. A. Khan
Planta Medica , 74, 1492, 2008
● Synthesis and evaluation of invitro anti-tuberculosis activity of N-substituted glycolamides F. Daryaee, F. Kobarfard, A. Khalaj, P. Farnia European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ,xx, 1, 2008
● Correlation between different lipophilicity parameters and antimycobacterial activities of 2-hydroxyacetamides F. Kobarfard, A. Khalaj, F. Daryaee, A. Z. Larijany, S. Rezaee aru ,16, 2 ,xx, 2008
● 99mTc-HMPAO-labeled liposome: an investigation into the effect of some formulation factors on labeling efficiency
and in vitro stability N. Mirahmadi, M. H. Babai, A. M. Vali, F. Johari Daha, F. Kobarfard, S. Dadashzadeh
Nuclear Medicine and Biology ,35,387, 2008
● Chemical Constituents from Otostegia persica S. A. Ayatollahi, F. Kobarfard, J. Asgarpanah, Z. Ahmed
J. Chem. Soc. Pak ,29, 1,61, 2007
● Lysosomal oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by dacarbazine and its pyridine derivative in hepatocytes J. Pourahmad, F. Kobarfard, Marzieh Amirmostofian Iranian J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 2, 4, 123, 2006
● An improved GC method for rapid analysis of valproic acid in human plasma without derivatization R. Ahmadkhaniha, N. Rastkari, F. Kobarfard, H. Pakdaman,O. Ahmadkhaniha, A. Kebriaizadeh Iranian J. Pharmaceutical Sci., 2, 5, 25, 2006
● Electrochemical Study of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in the presence of 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2(1H)-quinolone: Application to
electrochemical synthesis of new benzofuran derivative. A. Bayandori Moghadam, F. Kobarfard, S. S. H. Davarani, D.
Nematollahi, M. Shamsipour, A. R. Fakhari Journal of Electrochemical Chemistry, 586, 161, 2006
● Introducing a full Validated analytical procedure as an official compendial method for fentanyl transdermal patches
A. Mehdizadeh, T. Toliyat, M. R. Rouini, F. Kobarfard Daru, 13, 46, 2005
● Mechanistic study of electrochemical oxidation of o-dihydroxybenzenes in the presence of 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-
2(1H)-quinolon, Application to the electrochemical synthesis A. Bayandori Moghaddam, F. kobarfard, A. R. Fakhari, D. Nematollahi, S. S. H. Davarani Electrochimica Acta, 51, 739, 2005
● Effect of Cultivation conditions on growth and antifungal activity Mycena leptocephala H. Vahidi, F. Kobarfard, F. Namjoyan
African Journal of Biotechnology, 3(11)606, 2004
● 1D and 2D-NMR assignments of Nigricin from Iris imbricate S. A. M. Ayatollahi, M. R. Moein, F. Kobarfard, S. Nasim,
M. I. Choudhary Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical research, 4, 250, 2005
● Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of 2-hydroxyacetamides F. Daryaee, F. Kobarfard, A. Khalaj, P. Farnia
Daru, 13(3)94, 2005
● Lysosomal oxidative stress cytotoxicity induced by p-phenylenediamine redox cycling in hepatocytese J. Pourahmad, F. Kobarfard, A. Shakoori. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4, 193, 2004
● Two isoflavones from Iris songorica Schrenk A. M. Ayatollahi, M. R. Moein, F. Kobarfard, M. I. Coudhary
Daru, 12, 54, 2004
● Is FT-ATR a sensitive tool for determination of aflatoxins? A. Shmsai, F. Kobarfard, H. Yazdanpanah, O. Sabzevari
Journal of American Oil Chemists Society, 81, 719, 2004
● Attempted syntheses of aminofluorothiophenes F. Kobarfard, J. M. Kauffman, W. J. Boyko Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 36(5)1247, 1999
● The chemical constitutions of Potamogeton pectinatus S. A. M. Ayatollahi, F. Kobarfard, H. Komeylizadeh, N. Kashani,
N. Afza, A. Malik Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 40, 90, 1998
● The protective effect of liquorice and its derivatives against gastric ulcer induced by piroxicam and mefenamic acid in rats
M. Zolfaghari, A. R. Dehpour, M. Amanlow, N. Azari, F. Kobarfard Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2(4)179, 1996
● Antiulcer activity of liquorice and its derivatives in experimental gastric lesions induced by ibuprofen in rats A. R. Dehpour, M. Zolfaghari, T. Samadian, F. Kobarfard, M. Faizi, M. Assari
International journal of pharmacutics, 119(2)133, 1995
Remarks in Successful Cellular Investigations for Fighting Breast Cancer Using Novel Synthetic Compounds
by Farshad H. Shirazi, Afshin Zarghi, Farzad Kobarfard, Rezvan Zendehdel, Maryam Nakhjavani, Sara Arfaiee, Tannaz Zebardast, Shohreh Mohebi, Nassim Anjidani, Azadeh Ashtarinezhad and Shahram Shoeibiin the book "Breast Cancer - Focusing Tumor Microenvironment, Stem cells and Metastasis" edited by Mehmet Gunduz and Esra Gunduz, ISBN 978-953-307-766-6, InTech, December 12, 2011

Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol County,Mazanderan.